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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:caug-bnzy.com.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该使用卧式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心吗?——加(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)件特征

加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)类型(xing)的(de)(de)选定需(xu)要(yao)(yao)考虑加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)对象、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)范围和(he)设(she)备(bei)价(jia)格(ge)等(deng)(deng)(deng)因素,根据(ju)所选零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)族 (组(zu))进行(xing)。如果您的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)具有以(yi)下特征,则应选择(ze)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin):加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)两面(mian)以(yi)上(shang)的(de)(de)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)或加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)在四(si)周呈(cheng)径向辐射(she)状排列的(de)(de)孔(kong)系、面(mian),如箱体类、壳体类零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)等(deng)(deng)(deng),应选择(ze)卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin);被(bei)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)位置(zhi)精度要(yao)(yao)求较高,宜(yi)选用高精密卧(wo)式(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin);零(ling)件(jian)(jian)(jian)在一(yi)次(ci)装夹(jia)中(zhong)(zhong)需(xu)要(yao)(yao)完成多面(mian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)时,可选择(ze)立卧(wo)复(fu)合(he)(he)式(shi)(shi)五面(mian)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)。当然,上(shang)述各点(dian)也不是绝对的(de)(de),一(yi)方(fang)(fang)面(mian)是由于(yu)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)正朝(chao)着复(fu)合(he)(he)化方(fang)(fang)向发展,另(ling)一(yi)方(fang)(fang)面(mian)选型(xing)时要(yao)(yao)综合(he)(he)考虑生产效(xiao)率、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺要(yao)(yao)求和(he)设(she)备(bei)资金等(deng)(deng)(deng)因素,要(yao)(yao)以(yi)性价(jia)比(bi)来衡量选型(xing)方(fang)(fang)案的(de)(de)合(he)(he)理性。

建议(yi):采(cai)购(gou)用户需(xu)要根据加工(gong)对(dui)象、加工(gong)工(gong)艺、加工(gong)范围(wei)等特征(zheng)来确(que)定是(shi)否使用卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心以及使用什么(me)样的卧(wo)式加工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工作台尺寸

这是(shi)卧(wo)式(shi)加工中(zhong)心的(de)(de)主(zhu)(zhu)参数,主(zhu)(zhu)要取决于(yu)典(dian)型零(ling)件(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)外(wai)廓尺寸、装夹(jia)方式(shi)等(deng)(deng)。应(ying)(ying)选(xuan)择比(bi)典(dian)型零(ling)件(jian)(jian)外(wai)廓尺寸稍大一些的(de)(de)工作(zuo)(zuo)台,以便留出安装夹(jia)具所需的(de)(de)空间(jian),保(bao)证零(ling)件(jian)(jian)在其上(shang)面能够顺利装夹(jia),此外(wai)还应(ying)(ying)考虑工作(zuo)(zuo)台的(de)(de)承(cheng)载能力、T形(xing)槽数量和尺寸等(deng)(deng),小(xiao)尺寸的(de)(de)比(bi)较通(tong)用,比(bi)如站内的(de)(de)卧(wo)式(shi)加工中(zhong)心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等(deng)(deng)。

建议:目前市场上的(de)卧式加工(gong)中心工(gong)作台尺寸多(duo)为1000以下的(de),能够满(man)足(zu)大多(duo)数用户(hu)的(de)需(xu)求。

(2)坐标轴行(xing)程

最基(ji)(ji)本(ben)的(de)(de)(de)坐标轴是X、Y、Z三轴,其行程(cheng)(cheng)和(he)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)尺寸(cun)有相应(ying)的(de)(de)(de)比例(li)关系(xi),工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)大小(xiao)基(ji)(ji)本(ben)上(shang)确(que)定了加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)空间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)大小(xiao)。如(ru)个别零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)尺寸(cun)大于卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)行程(cheng)(cheng)时,则必须(xu)要求(qiu)零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)区域处于机(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)行程(cheng)(cheng)范围之内,此外还要考虑零(ling)件是否与机(ji)床(chuang)交(jiao)换(huan)刀具的(de)(de)(de)空间(jian)干(gan)涉、与机(ji)床(chuang)防护(hu)罩等(deng)附件发(fa)生干(gan)涉等(deng)系(xi)列(lie)问题。而对(dui)需(xu)要多轴联动加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin) (如(ru)增(zeng)加(jia)(jia)回(hui)转(zhuan)坐标A、B、C或(huo)附加(jia)(jia)坐标U、V、W),如(ru)四轴、五轴联动卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin),这就需(xu)要特殊(shu)订货,同时必须(xu)对(dui)相应(ying)配套的(de)(de)(de)编程(cheng)(cheng)软件、测(ce)量(liang)手段(duan)以及机(ji)床(chuang)价格(ge)等(deng)有全(quan)面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)考虑和(he)安排(pai)。

建(jian)议:采购(gou)用(yong)户需要根据加工工件(jian)规格选择不同坐标轴行程的卧(wo)式加工中心,多轴联动(dong)需要特殊定制。

(3)主(zhu)轴电动机功(gong)率与转(zhuan)矩

它反映了卧式(shi)(shi)加工中心的(de)(de)(de)切削效率(lv),也(ye)从一个侧面反映了卧式(shi)(shi)加工中心的(de)(de)(de)切削刚性和机(ji)床整体(ti)刚度。主(zhu)轴(zhou)电动机(ji)功率(lv)在同(tong)类(lei)规格的(de)(de)(de)卧式(shi)(shi)加工中心上可以有各种不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)配置,同(tong)类(lei)规格的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)轴(zhou)转速不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)卧式(shi)(shi)加工中心,主(zhu)轴(zhou)电动机(ji)功率(lv)可以相差(cha)很大(da)。

建议:采(cai)购用户应根据自身典型零件毛(mao)坯余量(liang)大小(xiao)、切削能(neng)力 (单位时(shi)间金属切削量(liang))、要求达到的加工精(jing)度、实际能(neng)配置的刀具等因素综(zong)合选择(ze)。

(4)主轴转速与进(jin)给速度

需要(yao)高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)切削(xue)或超低速(su)(su)切削(xue)时(shi),应关注主(zhu)轴(zhou)的(de)(de)(de)转(zhuan)速(su)(su)范围(wei)。特别是高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)切削(xue)时(shi),既要(yao)有高(gao)(gao)的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su),同时(shi)也要(yao)具备与主(zhu)轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su)相匹配(pei)的(de)(de)(de)进给(ji)速(su)(su)度。目(mu)前卧式(shi)加工中心高(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)化趋势发展很快,主(zhu)轴(zhou)从每分钟(zhong)几千转(zhuan)到几万转(zhuan),直线(xian)坐标(biao)快速(su)(su)移动(dong)速(su)(su)度从10—20/min上(shang)升(sheng)到80m/min以上(shang),当(dang)然其功能(neng)部(bu)件如电主(zhu)轴(zhou)、直线(xian)电动(dong)机、直线(xian)滚动(dong)导轨、主(zhu)轴(zhou)轴(zhou)承(cheng)等(deng)(deng)及相配(pei)套(tao)的(de)(de)(de)光栅(zha)尺、刀具等(deng)(deng)附件价(jia)格也都相应上(shang)升(sheng),甚至很昂(ang)贵(gui)。

建议(yi):采购(gou)用户必(bi)须根据自身的(de)技(ji)术能(neng)力(li)和配套能(neng)力(li)合理作出卧式加(jia)工(gong)中心的(de)合理选(xuan)型。

(5)刀库容(rong)量

可以根据被(bei)加工(gong)零件(jian)的工(gong)艺分析(xi)结果来确(que)定(ding)所需数(shu)量(liang),通常以典型零件(jian)在一次装夹中所需刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)数(shu)量(liang)来确(que)定(ding)刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)的容量(liang),卧式加工(gong)中心以选用40把刀(dao)(dao)左右(you)的刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)为宜。同时(shi)要关(guan)注最(zui)大刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)直(zhi)径与(yu)长度以及最(zui)大刀(dao)(dao)具(ju)(ju)重量(liang)等。用于FMC或(huo)FMS的卧式加工(gong)中心,应选择大容量(liang)刀(dao)(dao)库(ku),甚至配置可交换刀(dao)(dao)库(ku)。

建议:普(pu)通(tong)卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)选(xuan)择(ze)40把刀(dao)左右的刀(dao)库即够(gou)用,用于FMC或FMS的卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)(xin)应选(xuan)择(ze)大容量刀(dao)库。

3我需要(yao)选(xuan)用什么精(jing)度的(de)卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)?——精(jing)度的(de)选(xuan)定

加工(gong)中心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)等(deng)级主(zhu)要根(gen)据典型零件关(guan)键(jian)部位(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)来确定(ding)(ding)。其精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)主(zhu)要包括定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)、重复(fu)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)和铣圆精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du),特别(bie)是(shi)(shi)重复(fu)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du),它反映了(le)坐标(biao)(biao)(biao)轴的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)稳定(ding)(ding)性,是(shi)(shi)衡量该(gai)轴是(shi)(shi)否(fou)稳定(ding)(ding)可靠工(gong)作的(de)(de)(de)基本指标(biao)(biao)(biao)。特别(bie)值(zhi)得注(zhu)意的(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi),选型订(ding)货时(shi)必须(xu)全面分析,不(bu)能简单(dan)地看产品样本所列(lie)的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)数(shu)值(zhi),因为(wei)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)不(bu)同(tong)、规(gui)定(ding)(ding)数(shu)值(zhi)不(bu)同(tong)、检(jian)测方法(fa)不(bu)同(tong),数(shu)值(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)含义(yi)就不(bu)同(tong)。刊物(wu)、样本、合格证所列(lie)出的(de)(de)(de)单(dan)位(wei)(wei)长度(du)(du)上(shang)允许的(de)(de)(de)正负值(zhi)(一般(ban)为(wei)正负0.05)常常是(shi)(shi)不(bu)明(ming)确的(de)(de)(de),订(ding)货时(shi)要特别(bie)注(zhu)意,一定(ding)(ding)要弄(nong)清是(shi)(shi)IOS(国(guo)(guo)际(ji)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)化(hua)组织标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、VDI(德国(guo)(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、JIS(日本标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、NMTBA(美国(guo)(guo)机床制造商协会(hui)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))还是(shi)(shi)NAS(美国(guo)(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))及GB(中国(guo)(guo)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))等(deng),进而(er)分析各种不(bu)同(tong)标(biao)(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)所规(gui)定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)检(jian)测计算方法(fa)和检(jian)测环(huan)境条(tiao)件,才不(bu)会(hui)产生(sheng)误解。

铣圆精(jing)度(du)(du)是综合评价卧式加工中心(xin)有(you)关数(shu)控(kong)(kong)轴(zhou)的伺服跟随运动特性(xing)和数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系统插(cha)补功能的主要(yao)(yao)指(zhi)(zhi)标之一。不(bu)论典(dian)型零件是否(fou)有(you)此需要(yao)(yao),为了将来可(ke)能的需要(yao)(yao)及更好地(di)控(kong)(kong)制精(jing)度(du)(du),必须重视这一指(zhi)(zhi)标。

要特别注意区别加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精度(du)与机床精度(du)两(liang)个(ge)不同(tong)的(de)(de)(de)概念。将(jiang)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)厂家样本(ben)(ben)上或产(chan)品合格(ge)证上的(de)(de)(de)位(wei)置精度(du)当作卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精度(du)是(shi)(shi)(shi)错误(wu)(wu)的(de)(de)(de)。样本(ben)(ben)或合格(ge)证上标明(ming)的(de)(de)(de)位(wei)置精度(du)是(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心本(ben)(ben)身的(de)(de)(de)精度(du),而加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精度(du)是(shi)(shi)(shi)包括卧(wo)式加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心本(ben)(ben)身所允许误(wu)(wu)差(cha)在内的(de)(de)(de)整(zheng)个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)系统各(ge)种因素所产(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)误(wu)(wu)差(cha)总和。整(zheng)个(ge)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)系统误(wu)(wu)差(cha)产(chan)生(sheng)(sheng)的(de)(de)(de)原因是(shi)(shi)(shi)很复杂的(de)(de)(de),很难用线性关系定(ding)量表(biao)达。选(xuan)(xuan)型时,可参考工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序能力(li)系数(shu)Cp的(de)(de)(de)评定(ding)方法(fa)来作为机床加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)精度(du)的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)型依据。一般而言,Cp应大于1.33。

站内高(gao)精密的(de)几(ji)款卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式(shi)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心性(xing)能都不错。

建议:采购用户在挑选不同精(jing)(jing)度(du)的卧式(shi)加工中心时,需要考虑:不同标准对应(ying)的单位长度(du)含义;重视铣圆精(jing)(jing)度(du)指标;区别加工精(jing)(jing)度(du)和机(ji)床精(jing)(jing)度(du)。

4我应该选(xuan)择(ze)哪(na)种数控(kong)系统?——数控(kong)系统的选(xuan)定

数(shu)(shu)(shu)控系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)分为基本功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)与(yu)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng),可(ke)以从(cong)操(cao)作方式(shi)(shi)、用(yong)户功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)、控制(zhi)方式(shi)(shi)、驱动形式(shi)(shi)、反馈形式(shi)(shi)、接口形式(shi)(shi)、检测与(yu)测量、报警与(yu)提(ti)示(shi)、故(gu)障诊断等方面(mian)综合(he)衡量。基本功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)是(shi)必须提(ti)供的(de)(de)(de),而(er)只(zhi)有当用(yong)户选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择了(le)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)后,厂家才(cai)会另(ling)行(xing)提(ti)供并另(ling)行(xing)加价(jia),且定价(jia)一般较(jiao)高。总(zong)体而(er)言,数(shu)(shu)(shu)控系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)一定要(yao)根据加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)(de)性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)需(xu)要(yao)来选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择,订(ding)购时既(ji)要(yao)把需(xu)要(yao)的(de)(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)订(ding)全(quan),不能(neng)(neng)(neng)遗漏,同时避免使用(yong)率不高而(er)造(zao)成浪费,还(hai)需(xu)注意各功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)(neng)之间的(de)(de)(de)关联性(xing)。另(ling)一方面(mian),在可(ke)供选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择的(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)中(zhong),如SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)、国产华中(zhong)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)等,性(xing)能(neng)(neng)(neng)高低差(cha)别很(hen)大,价(jia)格亦相差(cha)很(hen)大,进口系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)或国产系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)亦决(jue)定其(qi)价(jia)格的(de)(de)(de)高低。总(zong)体上来看,法(fa)兰克系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)性(xing)价(jia)比(bi)比(bi)较(jiao)高,国内(nei)卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)使用(yong)比(bi)例比(bi)较(jiao)高。站内(nei)卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)使用(yong)法(fa)兰克数(shu)(shu)(shu)控系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)也比(bi)较(jiao)多,比(bi)如MH-800B 、 LH-500B都是(shi)比(bi)较(jiao)好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择。多台卧式(shi)(shi)加工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)型(xing)时,应尽可(ke)能(neng)(neng)(neng)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)同一厂家的(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)(shu)控系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong),这样操(cao)作、编(bian)程、维(wei)修都比(bi)较(jiao)方便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我(wo)需要(yao)选择几台卧式加工中心能(neng)达(da)到的我(wo)的产(chan)量要(yao)求?——生产(chan)能(neng)力(li)的估(gu)算(suan)

选(xuan)型(xing)时(shi)(shi),必须要考虑(lv)卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心能(neng)(neng)达到(dao)的(de)生(sheng)(sheng)产能(neng)(neng)力(li),即要求(qiu)选(xuan)定(ding)的(de)卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心在(zai)一(yi)年(nian)之(zhi)内能(neng)(neng)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种(zhong)典(dian)型(xing)零(ling)件、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)(chu)多(duo)少数(shu)量的(de)零(ling)件。要得到(dao)这些数(shu)据(ju)必须对每一(yi)种(zhong)确(que)定(ding)的(de)典(dian)型(xing)零(ling)件进(jin)行加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)(shi)和生(sheng)(sheng)产节拍的(de)估(gu)算(suan)。一(yi)般(ban)步骤为:首先(xian),根据(ju)已(yi)选(xuan)定(ding)的(de)典(dian)型(xing)零(ling)件进(jin)行工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)分析(xi),初步确(que)定(ding)一(yi)条(tiao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)路(lu)线,在(zai)这条(tiao)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)路(lu)线中选(xuan)出(chu)(chu)准备在(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序;第二,根据(ju)现(xian)用(yong)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)参(can)数(shu),估(gu)算(suan)出(chu)(chu)每道在(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)单个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian);第三,由(you)每个单工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)计(ji)算(suan)出(chu)(chu)选(xuan)定(ding)零(ling)件在(zai)卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心上加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)总时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian),进(jin)而计(ji)算(suan)出(chu)(chu)年(nian)产量即生(sheng)(sheng)产能(neng)(neng)力(li)。如果(guo)估(gu)算(suan)结果(guo)达不到(dao)目(mu)标(biao)值,但(dan)相差(cha)不大(da),则可以通过修改工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)(yi)参(can)数(shu)的(de)方法加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)以调整;如果(guo)相差(cha)很大(da),则应考虑(lv)增加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心台数(shu)的(de)配置。

建议(yi):采购用户(hu)需要根据工(gong)件(jian)加工(gong)工(gong)时和生产节(jie)拍的(de)估(gu)算,决(jue)定卧式加工(gong)中(zhong)心配备(bei)台数(shu)。

6卧式加工中(zhong)心有好多(duo)选(xuan)配的附(fu)件我应该如何选(xuan)配?——其他功能部件及附(fu)件的选(xuan)定

(1)坐标轴数和(he)联(lian)动轴数

坐标(biao)轴(zhou)数(shu)和(he)联动(dong)轴(zhou)数(shu)均应(ying)满足(zu)典型零件加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)要(yao)求。一般情况(kuang)下,同厂家(jia)、同规(gui)格(ge)、同等精度(du)的卧(wo)式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心,增加(jia)(jia)(jia)一个标(biao)准坐标(biao)轴(zhou),价格(ge)约增加(jia)(jia)(jia)30%—50%。尽(jin)管增加(jia)(jia)(jia)坐标(biao)轴(zhou)数(shu)可(ke)以强(qiang)化(hua)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心的功能,是(shi)机床上档(dang)次的标(biao)志之一,但最终还是(shi)要(yao)在工(gong)艺要(yao)求和(he)资金条件下平衡决定(ding)。

(2)工作台

卧式加工(gong)中心(xin)可(ke)配(pei)(pei)置用(yong)于分度的回转(zhuan)工(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)和数控回转(zhuan)工(gong)作(zuo)台(tai),后(hou)者(zhe)能够(gou)实现任意分度,作(zuo)为B轴与其他轴联动控制。回转(zhuan)工(gong)作(zuo)台(tai)配(pei)(pei)置与否以及(ji)如何配(pei)(pei)置必须以实际需要来确定,以经济、实用(yong)为目的。

(3)自动换刀(dao)装置 (ATC)

ATC的(de)(de)选(xuan)择(ze)主(zhu)要考虑换(huan)刀(dao)时(shi)间与可靠性。过分强调(diao)换(huan)刀(dao)时(shi)间会使加工中(zhong)心的(de)(de)价格(ge)大幅(fu)度(du)提高并使故(gu)障(zhang)率(lv)上升。据统计,加工中(zhong)心的(de)(de)故(gu)障(zhang)中(zhong)约(yue)有(you)50%与ATC有(you)关,因此,在满足使用要求的(de)(de)前提下,尽量选(xuan)用可靠性高的(de)(de)ATC,以降低故(gu)障(zhang)率(lv)和整机成本

(4)必要的附件、配(pei)套件

选(xuan)型时,还(hai)应注意选(xuan)用(yong)(yong)一些配(pei)套(tao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)及附(fu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian),尽量避免(mian)因缺少一个(ge)几万元就能(neng)购买的(de)(de)(de)附(fu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)而影(ying)响卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)正常(chang)运(yun)行(xing)(xing)。慎重选(xuan)择刀柄(bing)和刀具也是(shi)保证卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心正常(chang)运(yun)行(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)(de)关键,最(zui)佳的(de)(de)(de)选(xuan)择办法应是(shi)根(gen)据(ju)典(dian)型零件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)所(suo)需的(de)(de)(de)品种和数量来确定,并(bing)在使(shi)用(yong)(yong)中(zhong)陆续添置。在卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)构成中(zhong),排屑装(zhuang)置、防护(hu)装(zhuang)置和对(dui)(dui)刀装(zhuang)置 (如刀具预调仪(yi))等(deng)均是(shi)必需的(de)(de)(de),对(dui)(dui)一些尽管不是(shi)必需的(de)(de)(de)配(pei)套(tao)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian),但如果价格(ge)不高,对(dui)(dui)使(shi)用(yong)(yong)带来很多方便,也应尽量选(xuan)用(yong)(yong),如附(fu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)铣头(tou)、储刀料架、运(yun)刀具车、装(zhuang)卸(xie)器等(deng)。

建议(yi):配件越(yue)(yue)高,能实(shi)现的功能越(yue)(yue)多,但价格(ge)也(ye)越(yue)(yue)贵,采购用户需(xu)要根(gen)据加(jia)工(gong)需(xu)求酌(zhuo)情(qing)选配。

7卧式加工中(zhong)心选型时还(hai)有什么其他需要注(zhu)意的?——需要注(zhu)意的一些问题(ti)

(1)结构设计

加工(gong)中心对其床身(shen)、立(li)柱、工(gong)作台、主(zhu)轴以及刀(dao)库(ku)等功能部件的(de)结构(gou)设计有着很高(gao)的(de)要(yao)求(qiu),以达到(dao)其高(gao)强度(du)、高(gao)刚度(du)、高(gao)抗振性和稳定性的(de)目的(de)。选(xuan)型时,应(ying)特别注意把其结构(gou)作为一(yi)项重要(yao)的(de)具体内容来进行要(yao)求(qiu)与(yu)考虑。

(2)功能与加工(gong)的适应性

虽然加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心可以进(jin)行钻(zuan)、扩、铣、镗、铰(jiao)、攻螺纹乃至车削 (如(ru)车铣复合加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心)等多种加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong),但是(shi)在具(ju)体选(xuan)择(ze)时,还应(ying)根据具(ju)体需要(yao)来考虑(lv)机床的功能(neng)与加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)是(shi)否相适(shi)应(ying)等问(wen)题(ti)。要(yao)注意以下(xia)几点:

A、复杂曲(qu)线(xian)加工时(shi),要考(kao)虑CNC是否有(you)所(suo)需要的曲(qu)线(xian)插(cha)补功能,或选择(ze)什(shen)么方(fang)式逼近(jin)加工曲(qu)线(xian)并保(bao)证所(suo)要求(qiu)的表面粗糙度(du)。三维(wei)加工时(shi),要考(kao)虑选择(ze)适合的刀具结构,还要考(kao)虑程序编(bian)制能力,如有(you)必要则必须配备(bei)自(zi)动编(bian)程装置或后置处(chu)理编(bian)程装置。

B、需要(yao)(yao)进行螺纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)(qie)削 (非攻螺纹(wen)方式(shi))时(shi),不仅(jin)要(yao)(yao)看是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有(you)螺纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)(qie)削功能、螺旋线插补功能和主轴转(zhuan)动(dong)与进给同步(bu)功能,还要(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)机床是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有(you)径向(xiang)(xiang)进给装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)、是(shi)否(fou)(fou)有(you)主轴在旋转(zhuan)方向(xiang)(xiang)上任(ren)意角(jiao)度位置(zhi)(zhi)准确定位功能。否(fou)(fou)则,仅(jin)在数控系(xi)统中用了螺纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)(qie)削功能仍(reng)然(ran)无法进行螺纹(wen)切(qie)(qie)(qie)削C、采(cai)用金刚铰、浮动(dong)镗(tang)和挤压加工等特种加工时(shi),既要(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)适宜的自动(dong)换刀的条件(jian)(jian),又要(yao)(yao)考虑(lv)选(xuan)择合(he)适的刀具结构(gou)和切(qie)(qie)(qie)削用量(liang),应尽可能在购买主机时(shi)一并购置(zhi)(zhi)部(bu)分易损部(bu)件(jian)(jian)及其他附件(jian)(jian)等。

D、如果有(you)应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等的(de)规划,或要(yao)进行网(wang)络制造,则要(yao)注(zhu)意(yi)通(tong)信(xin)功能,应选择具有(you)RS—232、RS—485甚(shen)至MAP网(wang)络通(tong)信(xin)、CAN总线等接(jie)口的(de)系(xi)统。

(3)运转的可靠性(xing)

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建(jian)议(yi):采购用(yong)户在选型时,需(xu)要对卧式加(jia)工中心(xin)整体的结构设计、可靠性(xing)以及价(jia)加(jia)工适(shi)应(ying)性(xing)有客观的认识。


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