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桁架机械手

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:caug-bnzy.com.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机械(xie)手(shou)由(you)(you)主(zhu)体、驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)系统和控制(zhi)系统三个基本部分组成(cheng)。按机器人结构分类为(wei)直(zhi)角坐标(biao)型(xing),机械(xie)手(shou)沿(yan)二维直(zhi)角坐标(biao)系移动(dong)(dong)(dong)。主(zhu)体部分通常采用龙门式结构,由(you)(you)y向(xiang)横(heng)(heng)梁(liang)与导(dao)轨(gui)、z向(xiang)滑枕、十字(zi)滑座、立(li)柱、过渡连接板和基座等部分组成(cheng),z向(xiang)的直(zhi)线运动(dong)(dong)(dong)皆为(wei)交流伺服电动(dong)(dong)(dong)机通过蜗(wo)轮减速器驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)齿轮与y向(xiang)横(heng)(heng)梁(liang)、z向(xiang)滑枕上固定的齿条作(zuo)滚动(dong)(dong)(dong),驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)移动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件沿(yan)导(dao)轨(gui)快速运动(dong)(dong)(dong)。移动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件为(wei)质(zhi)量较轻的十字(zi)滑座和z向(xiang)滑枕,滑枕采用由(you)(you)铝合(he)金拉制(zhi)的型(xing)材。横(heng)(heng)梁(liang)采用方钢型(xing)材,在横(heng)(heng)梁(liang)上安(an)装有(you)导(dao)轨(gui)和齿条,通过滚轮与导(dao)轨(gui)接触,整个机械(xie)手(shou)都悬挂在其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)(du)快,加(jia)速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)(du)大,加(jia)减速(su)(su)(su)时(shi)间短(duan)(duan)。当输(shu)送(song)较重的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)时(shi),惯量(liang)大,因此,伺服驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)电机(ji)(ji)要(yao)有(you)足够(gou)(gou)的(de)(de)(de)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)和(he)制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)能(neng)力,支撑元件(jian)也要(yao)有(you)足够(gou)(gou)的(de)(de)(de)刚度(du)(du)(du)及(ji)强度(du)(du)(du)。只(zhi)有(you)这样,才能(neng)使伺服电动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)满足桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)响应、高(gao)刚度(du)(du)(du)及(ji)高(gao)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)要(yao)求。在(zai)选择合适伺服电动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)情况(kuang)下,根(gen)据物料运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)距离和(he)运行节(jie)拍,计算(suan)出伺服系统的(de)(de)(de)位移和(he)轨迹,对(dui)(dui)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)PID参数进行动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)态(tai)调(diao)整。桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手根(gen)据接收到的(de)(de)(de)位移、速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)(du)指令,经变化、放大并调(diao)整处理后(hou),传(chuan)递(di)给(ji)运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)单(dan)元,通过(guo)光纤传(chuan)感器(qi)对(dui)(dui)运行状(zhuang)(zhuang)态(tai)进行实(shi)时(shi)检测,在(zai)高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)搬运过(guo)程中,运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)在(zai)极短(duan)(duan)的(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间内到达给(ji)定的(de)(de)(de)速(su)(su)(su)度(du)(du)(du),并能(neng)在(zai)高(gao)速(su)(su)(su)行程中瞬间准停,通过(guo)高(gao)分辩率绝对(dui)(dui)式(shi)编码器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)插补运算(suan),控(kong)制机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)误(wu)(wu)差(cha)和(he)测量(liang)误(wu)(wu)差(cha)对(dui)(dui)运动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)精(jing)度(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)影响。由于被输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)不同,质(zhi)量(liang)也不同,因此,桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手有(you)多(duo)种规格(ge)和(he)系列(lie)。在(zai)选择时(shi),根(gen)据被输(shu)送(song)工(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)量(liang),加(jia)工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)节(jie)拍来选取。但机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手的(de)(de)(de)手臂(bei),夹持方(fang)(fang)式(shi),则根(gen)据被输(shu)送(song)工(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)形状(zhuang)(zhuang)、结构及(ji)机(ji)(ji)床夹具定夹方(fang)(fang)式(shi)来设(she)计(见图2)。

机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)能够借助可编程序(xu)来处理(li)和执行任务。机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)主要由(you)手(shou)图 1 臂、回转装置、运动(dong)(dong)部(bu)件(jian)及驱动(dong)(dong)部(bu)件(jian)组成。通过对工(gong)件(jian)外形或工(gong)件(jian)上定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)支(zhi)撑点定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)工(gong)件(jian)。例如,在汽车发动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)加(jia)工(gong)柔性(xing)自(zi)动(dong)(dong)线物流输送中,桁架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)会根据缸体(ti)、缸盖、曲轴等工(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)外形特点,选取不(bu)同的(de)(de)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)方(fang)式(shi)。柔性(xing)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)上采用(yong)气缸和电机(ji)(ji)进行定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)的(de)(de)切换(huan)驱动(dong)(dong),一(yi)套(tao)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)可完成不(bu)同品种的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)搬运工(gong)作。夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)可根据产品质量和外形的(de)(de)大小采用(yong)系(xi)列化设计,机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)上的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)安(an)装方(fang)式(shi)相同,针对不(bu)同系(xi)列的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian),只需切换(huan)相应的(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)定(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)即可,满足快速切换(huan)的(de)(de)需要。这样(yang),当(dang)加(jia)工(gong)不(bu)同品种的(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian),只须变换(huan)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)就(jiu)可实现,提高了桁架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)柔性(xing)化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架(jia)机械手(shou)输送(song)装置的发展(zhan)及现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)发展,经历了刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)和柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)两个时代。就(jiu)目(mu)前而言, 在国内二者(zhe)均有(you)之(zhi)。刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)棘(ji)轮棘(ji)爪、摆杆、抬起步(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道(dao)等形式。随(sui)着加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发展,由其组(zu)(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)逐步(bu)替代组(zu)(zu)(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),它以(yi)(yi)适(shi)应小(xiao)批(pi)量(liang)多品种的(de)(de)(de)优点,得(de)到市场的(de)(de)(de)广泛(fan)认可(ke),并(bing)称其为(wei)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)。这(zhei)种以(yi)(yi)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),就(jiu)其输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)或(huo)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)带依然(ran)为(wei)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)类(lei)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)可(ke)谓(wei)是(shi)(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当(dang)(dang)今的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)又(you)有(you)了飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)形式以(yi)(yi)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou))并(bing)存,或(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),即输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)全部(bu)由桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成,这(zhei)是(shi)(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),即主机(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)也(ye)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)高速加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)配(pei)以(yi)(yi)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song),又(you)称之(zhi)为(wei)敏捷柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),是(shi)(shi)敏捷制(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)组(zu)(zu)(zu)成部(bu)分(fen)(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)采(cai)用(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)(ju)可(ke)根(gen)据机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)配(pei)置(zhi)随(sui)意改变(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)之(zhi)间(jian)的(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)(zhuang)位置(zhi)不再象刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)步(bu)距(ju)(ju)或(huo)步(bu)距(ju)(ju)倍(bei)数的(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求进(jin)行(xing)严(yan)格的(de)(de)(de)安装(zhuang)(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)速度也(ye)可(ke)根(gen)据生产节拍及(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)距(ju)(ju)离而改变(bian)。而真正体现柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)重要(yao)一面是(shi)(shi),当(dang)(dang)被加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零件的(de)(de)(de)产品改变(bian)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)不会不适(shi)应而全部(bu)更(geng)换(huan),只(zhi)要(yao)改变(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)程序和机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)局部(bu)结构即可(ke)。采(cai)用(yong)桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)更(geng)先进(jin)的(de)(de)(de)一面是(shi)(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)整(zheng)体的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化(hua)、智能(neng)化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)协调统(tong)一。因此,桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)才在当(dang)(dang)今柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)上越来越多地被采(cai)用(yong),使整(zheng)个生产过程通过信(xin)息(xi)流(liu)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)进(jin)行(xing)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)。在加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和运输(shu)(shu)(shu)过程中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong),所需各种信(xin)息(xi)收集、处(chu)理、反馈(kui),并(bing)通过电子计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)其他控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)(液压、气(qi)压装(zhuang)(zhuang)置(zhi)等),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)或(huo)运输(shu)(shu)(shu)设备实行(xing)分(fen)(fen)级控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)。信(xin)息(xi)流(liu)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)由中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)央管理计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流(liu)控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控(kong)制(zhi)(zhi)计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)以(yi)(yi)及(ji)信(xin)息(xi)传送(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)(zu)(zu)成。目(mu)前,汽车制(zhi)(zhi)造(zao)业中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体、缸盖及(ji)曲(qu)轴等大批(pi)量(liang)关键(jian)零件的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),大都采(cai)用(yong)了桁架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)(shou)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国内外的(de)差(cha)距

当(dang)下,我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)(zhan)很快,技术水平有了(le)很大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)提(ti)高,与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)变得越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)小,甚(shen)至有些机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)相比已经没(mei)有什么差(cha)距(ju)。特(te)别是国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)家重大(da)(da)科技专项的(de)(de)(de)开展(zhan)(zhan),为(wei)(wei)我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)上(shang)档(dang)次上(shang)水平提(ti)高了(le)加(jia)(jia)速度,成绩显而(er)易(yi)见。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)这几年发展(zhan)(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)特(te)别快,但(dan)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)技术水平和(he)档(dang)次,较国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)还很明显,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)采(cai)(cai)用桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)较为(wei)(wei)普(pu)遍,而(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内却(que)为(wei)(wei)数(shu)不(bu)多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内庞大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)汽车(che)生(sheng)产(chan)市场所采(cai)(cai)用的(de)(de)(de)带桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),大(da)(da)多从国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)进口。如无(wu)锡柴油发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)缸体缸盖柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)由德国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总(zong)承包,由BZ800加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)(ji)、压(ya)装机(ji)(ji)(ji)在线(xian)检具(ju)、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨机(ji)(ji)(ji)组成。输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)采(cai)(cai)用空(kong)中(zhong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)。仅以汽车(che)制造业而(er)言(yan),国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)内生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),采(cai)(cai)用桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)屈指可数(shu)。大(da)(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)和(he)沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)等生(sheng)产(chan)出了(le)该方面的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),并在生(sheng)产(chan)实(shi)际(ji)中(zhong)得到了(le)应(ying)用。图4是大(da)(da)连(lian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)(tuan)生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸体加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)两种(zhong)缸体,分(fen)别为(wei)(wei)四缸和(he)六缸,其输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)采(cai)(cai)用空(kong)中(zhong)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)和(he)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)两端为(wei)(wei)机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道等形(xing)式。桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)两个,一(yi)个上(shang)料,一(yi)个下料。它的(de)(de)(de)成功,标(biao)志着我(wo)(wo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)由桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)开始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)水准迈进。

上述提及的(de)(de)只是(shi)数量上的(de)(de)比较,其实真正的(de)(de)原因(yin)还(hai)是(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)技(ji)术水平与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外有着(zhe)一(yi)定的(de)(de)差距(ju)。柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加工(gong)自动线采(cai)用的(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou),也(ye)是(shi)从(cong)(cong)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外进口的(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)。那时,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内还(hai)没有专门生产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)厂(chang)家(jia)。如今,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内巨(ju)一(yi)等(deng)一(yi)些桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)生产(chan)(chan)厂(chang)家(jia)的(de)(de)涌(yong)出,为(wei)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加工(gong)自动线带来(lai)了希(xi)望,进而缩小了与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外在(zai)生产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)方面的(de)(de)差距(ju),国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)在(zai)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加工(gong)自动线的(de)(de)应用也(ye)越来(lai)越多,从(cong)(cong)而打破(po)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)市场被外国(guo)(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)垄断(duan)。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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